To store a value and re-use it later, it can be assigned to a variable.
For example, if you want to say
Hello Penny! three times, you don't need to repeat the same string multiple times.
Instead, you can assign it to a variable and re-use it:
message = "Hello Penny!" puts message puts message puts message
This program prints the string
Hello Penny! three times to the standard output, each followed by a line break.
The name of a variable always starts with a lowercase Unicode letter (or an underscore, but that's reserved for special use cases) and can otherwise consist of alphanumeric characters or underscores. As a typical convention, upper-case letters are avoided and names are written in
The kind of variables this lesson discusses is called local variables. Other kinds will be introduced later. For now, we focus on local variables only.
The type of a variable is automatically inferred by the compiler. In the above example, it's
You can verify this with
message = "Hello Penny!" p! typeof(message)
p! is similar to
puts as it prints the value to the standard output, but it also prints the expression in code. This makes it a useful tool for inspecting the state of a Crystal program and debugging.
Reassigning a Value¶
A variable can be reassigned with a different value:
message = "Hello Penny!" p! message message = "Hello Sheldon!" p! message
This also works with values of different types. The type of the variable changes when a value of a different type is assigned. The compiler is smart enough to know which type it has at which point in the program.
message = "Hello Penny!" p! message, typeof(message) message = 73 p! message, typeof(message)