A Symbol represents a unique name inside the entire source code.
Symbols are interpreted at compile time and cannot be created dynamically. The only way to create a Symbol is by using a symbol literal, denoted by a colon (
:) followed by an identifier. The identifier may optionally be enclosed in double quotes (
:unquoted_symbol :"quoted symbol" :"a" # identical to :a
A double-quoted identifier can contain any unicode character including white spaces and accepts the same escape sequences as a string literal, yet no interpolation.
For an unquoted identifier the same naming rules apply as for methods. It can contain alphanumeric characters, underscore (
_) or characters with a code point greater than
0x9F). It must not start with a number and may end with an exclamation mark (
!) or question mark (
All Crystal operators can be used as symbol names unquoted:
:+ :- :* :/ :% :& :| :^ :** :>> :<< :== :!= :< :<= :> :>= :<=> :=== : :? := :! :~ :!~ :=~
Internally, symbols are implemented as constants with a numeric value of type
Percent symbol array literal
Besides the single symbol literal, there is also a percent literal to create an Array of symbols. It is indicated by
%i and a pair of delimiters. Valid delimiters are parentheses
(), square brackets
, curly braces
<> and pipes
||. Except for the pipes, all delimiters can be nested; meaning a start delimiter inside the string escapes the next end delimiter.
%i(foo bar baz) # => [:foo, :bar, :baz] %i(foo\nbar baz) # => [:"foo\nbar", :baz] %i(foo(bar) baz) # => [:"foo(bar)", :baz]
Identifiers may contain any unicode characters. Individual symbols are separated by a single space character (
%i(foo\ bar baz) # => [:"foo bar", :baz]