Hooks

Special macros exist that are invoked in some situations as hooks, at compile time:

  • inherited is invoked when a subclass is defined. @type is the inheriting type.
  • included is invoked when a module is included. @type is the including type.
  • extended is invoked when a module is extended. @type is the extending type.
  • method_missing is invoked when a method is not found.
  • method_added is invoked when a new method is defined in the current scope.
  • finished is invoked after instance variable types for all classes are known.

Example of inherited:

class Parent
  macro inherited
    def lineage
      "{{@type.name.id}} < Parent"
    end
  end
end

class Child < Parent
end

Child.new.lineage #=> "Child < Parent"

Example of method_missing:

macro method_missing(call)
  print "Got ", {{call.name.id.stringify}}, " with ", {{call.args.size}}, " arguments", '\n'
end

foo          # Prints: Got foo with 0 arguments
bar 'a', 'b' # Prints: Got bar with 2 arguments

Example of method_added:

macro method_added(method)
  {% puts "Method added:", method.name.stringify %}
end

def generate_random_number
  4
end
#=> Method added: generate_random_number

Both method_missing and method_added only apply to calls or methods in the same class that the macro is defined in, or only in the top level if the macro is defined outside of a class. For example:

macro method_missing(call)
  puts "In outer scope, got call: ", {{ call.name.stringify }}
end

class SomeClass
  macro method_missing(call)
    puts "Inside SomeClass, got call: ", {{ call.name.stringify }}
  end
end

class OtherClass
end

# This call is handled by the top-level `method_missing`
foo #=> In outer scope, got call: foo

obj = SomeClass.new
# This is handled by the one inside SomeClass
obj.bar #=> Inside SomeClass, got call: bar

other = OtherClass.new
# Neither OtherClass or its parents define a `method_missing` macro
other.baz #=> Error: Undefined method 'baz' for OtherClass

finished is called once a type has been completely defined - this includes extensions on that class. Consider the following program:

macro print_methods
  {% puts @type.methods.map &.name %}
end

class Foo
  macro finished
    {% puts @type.methods.map &.name %}
  end
  print_methods
end

class Foo
  def bar
    puts "I'm a method!"
  end
end

Foo.new.bar

The print_methods macro will be run as soon as it is encountered - and will print an empty list as there are no methods defined at that point. Once the second declaration of Foo is compiled the finished macro will be run, which will print [bar].

results matching ""

    No results matching ""